Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39, 46, 51, or book canon of the Old Testament and to the book canon of the New Testament that would be subsequently used to today, most notably the Synod of Hippo in CE. Also c. With the benefit of hindsight it can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament canon, although there are examples of other canonical lists in use after this time. The Protestant Old Testament of today has a book canon — the number of books though not the content varies from the Jewish Tanakh only because of a different method of division — while the Roman Catholic Church recognizes 46 books 51 books with some books combined into 46 books as the canonical Old Testament.
Some include 2 Esdras. The Anglican Church also recognizes a longer canon. The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy , "All scripture is given by inspiration of God". There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. The three books of Meqabyan are not to be confused with the books of Maccabees. The order of the other books is somewhat different from other groups', as well.
The Second Epistle to Timothy says that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness". Within these broad beliefs many schools of hermeneutics operate. Jewish antiquity attests to belief in sacred texts,   and a similar belief emerges in the earliest of Christian writings.
Various texts of the Bible mention divine agency in relation to its writings. The original texts of the Tanakh were mainly in Hebrew, with some portions in Aramaic. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there are words which are traditionally read differently from written, because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations.
The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic , Ethiopic , and Latin, among other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West, while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament and had no need to translate the New Testament.
The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, or Vetus Latina , which, from internal evidence, seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Latin Decretum Gelasianum also known as the Gelasian Decree , thought to be of a 6th-century document   of uncertain authorship and of pseudepigraphal papal authority variously ascribed to Pope Gelasius I , Pope Damasus I , or Pope Hormisdas    but reflecting the views of the Roman Church by that period,  the Council of Rome in AD under Pope Damasus I — assembled a list of books of the Bible.
Damasus commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin. This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible , in the fourth century AD although Jerome expressed in his prologues to most deuterocanonical books that they were non- canonical. Since the Protestant Reformation , Bible translations for many languages have been made. John Riches, professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow , provides the following view of the diverse historical influences of the Bible:.
It has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art; it has equally fuelled some of the worst excesses of human savagery, self-interest, and narrow-mindedness. It has inspired men and women to acts of great service and courage, to fight for liberation and human development; and it has provided the ideological fuel for societies which have enslaved their fellow human beings and reduced them to abject poverty.
It has, perhaps above all, provided a source of religious and moral norms which have enabled communities to hold together, to care for, and to protect one another; yet precisely this strong sense of belonging has in turn fuelled ethnic, racial, and international tension and conflict.
In Islam , the Bible is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God ; but revelation which had been corrupted or distorted in Arabic: tahrif ; which necessitated the giving of the Qur'an to the Islamic prophet , Muhammad , to correct this deviation. Members of other religions may also seek inspiration from the Bible.
For example, Rastafaris view the Bible as essential to their religion  and Unitarian Universalists view it as "one of many important religious texts". Biblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible as a text, and addresses questions such as authorship, dates of composition, and authorial intention. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible , which is an assertion against the Bible being a source of information or ethical guidance, or observations that the Bible may have translation errors. In the 17th century Thomas Hobbes collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses could not have written the bulk of the Torah.
Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified critical analysis, arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one, but pervasive throughout the five books, concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses Biblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to and sheds light upon the Hebrew Scriptures and the Christian Greek Scriptures or the "New Testament".
It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living in biblical times. There are a wide range of interpretations in the field of biblical archaeology. One broad division includes biblical maximalism which generally takes the view that most of the Old Testament or the Hebrew Bible is based on history although it is presented through the religious viewpoint of its time. It is considered to be the opposite of biblical minimalism which considers the Bible to be a purely post-exilic 5th century BCE and later composition.
Even among those scholars who adhere to biblical minimalism, the Bible is a historical document containing first-hand information on the Hellenistic and Roman eras , and there is universal scholarly consensus that the events of the 6th century BCE Babylonian captivity have a basis in history. The historicity of the biblical account of the history of ancient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th centuries BCE is disputed in scholarship.
The biblical account of the 8th to 7th centuries BCE is widely, but not universally, accepted as historical, while the verdict on the earliest period of the United Monarchy 10th century BCE and the historicity of David is unclear. Archaeological evidence providing information on this period, such as the Tel Dan Stele , can potentially be decisive.
The biblical account of events of the Exodus from Egypt in the Torah , and the migration to the Promised Land and the period of Judges are not considered historical in scholarship. The Bible used by Abraham Lincoln for his oath of office during his first inauguration in Most old Bibles were illuminated, they were manuscripts in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials , borders marginalia and miniature illustrations.
Up to the twelfth century, most manuscripts were produced in monasteries in order to add to the library or after receiving a commission from a wealthy patron. Larger monasteries often contained separate areas for the monks who specialized in the production of manuscripts called a scriptorium , where "separate little rooms were assigned to book copying; they were situated in such a way that each scribe had to himself a window open to the cloister walk.
The manuscript was "sent to the rubricator , who added in red or other colours the titles, headlines , the initials of chapters and sections, the notes and so on; and then — if the book was to be illustrated — it was sent to the illuminator. Coloured version of the Whore of Babylon illustration from Martin Luther's translation of the Bible. An Armenian Bible, illuminated by Malnazar. Jonah being swallowed by the fish, Kennicott Bible, But if anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition; and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bible disambiguation. For the song by Biffy Clyro, see Biblical song. Collection of religious texts in Judaism and Christianity. Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles. Translations and manuscripts. Biblical studies. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes.
Allegorical interpretation Literalism. Gnostic Islamic Qur'anic. Inerrancy Infallibility. See also: Authorship of the Bible. Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon. Main article: Torah. See also: Oral Torah. Main article: Nevi'im. Joshua Judges Samuel Kings. Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel. Main article: Ketuvim. Psalms Proverbs Job. Main article: Samaritan Pentateuch.
Main article: Septuagint. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection. Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. Main articles: Christian biblical canons and List of English Bible translations.
Main article: Old Testament. Main article: Pseudepigrapha. Further information: Sola scriptura and Christian theology. Main article: Development of the New Testament canon. See also: Language of the New Testament. See also: Biblical manuscript and Textual criticism. Main article: Ethiopian Biblical canon. Main articles: Biblical inspiration , Biblical literalism , Biblical infallibility , and Biblical inerrancy.
Further information: Bible translations and List of Bible translations by language. Main article: Islamic view of the Christian Bible. Main articles: Biblical studies and Biblical criticism. Main articles: Higher criticism and Lower criticism. Main articles: Biblical archaeology school and The Bible and history. The Kennicott Bible, Jephthah's daughter laments — Maciejowski Bible France, ca. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy. The Bible: the making and impact on the Bible a history. England: Lion Hudson. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.
Retrieved 22 May The United Methodists see Scripture as the primary source and criterion for Christian doctrine. They emphasize the importance of tradition, experience, and reason for Christian doctrine. Lutherans teach that the Bible is the sole source for Christian doctrine. The truths of Scripture do not need to be authenticated by tradition, human experience, or reason.
Scripture is self authenticating and is true in and of itself. Scripture and Tradition. Baker Books. Time Magazine. Retrieved 11 August Simply put, the Bible is the most influential book of all-time The Bible has done more to shape literature, history, entertainment, and culture than any book ever written. Even pop culture is deeply influenced by the Bible.
Guinness World Records. Retrieved 9 December The Wall Street Journal. The Economist. Top 10 of Everything Dorling Kindersley. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 23 April New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman, Archived from the original on 5 May Memories of ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. See "Rare scroll fragment to be unveiled," Jerusalem Post, May 21, Cross, F. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church.
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New York: Oxford University Press. The Torah: Portion by Portion , p. Torah Aura Productions, CA. Retrieved 31 August This evaluation is not reflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king's success or failure in war, or of the moral climate of the times, but rather the state of cultic worship during his reign.
Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religious reforms are singled out for praise, and those who encourage pagan practices are denounced. They raged intensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end until the time of Jeroboam II — Many of the people were compelled to sell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp social cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertyless indigents, on the other a small circle of the rich.
The decay affected both Judah and Israel High minded men were appalled at this development. A student of philosophy who runs from the discourses of the great metaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel as if he were going from the realm of the sublime to an area of trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issues of being and becoming, of matter and form, of definitions and demonstrations, he is thrown into orations about widows and orphans, about the corruption of judges and affairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a way through the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophets take us to the slums.
The world is a proud place, full of beauty, but the prophets are scandalized, and rave as if the whole world were a slum. They make much ado about paltry things, lavishing excessive language upon trifling subjects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor people have not been treated properly by the rich? Indeed, the sorts of crimes and even the amount of delinquency that fill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyond that which we regard as normal, as typical ingredients of social dynamics.
To us an injustice is injurious to the welfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow to existence; to us an episode; to them, a catastrophe, a threat to the world. It recognizes that Israel would not have survived, either politically or culturally, without the steadying presence of a dynastic royal house. Oxford University Press. Rodkinson, first published — published by Forgotten Books, p. How We Got the Bible , 3rd edition, rev. Baker Book House Company. The Living Age. Segal , p. Jobes and Moises Silva Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. Retrieved 10 February Its divergence from the accepted text afterward called the Masoretic was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation.
This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [ This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich. Eerdmans, Retrieved 13 August Dines, The Septuagint , Michael A. Knibb, Ed.
Barton, John, — 1st ed. Dunn, James D. John William , —. Grand Rapids, MI: W. Louisville, Ky. Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 6 June Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 6 August Bruce, Frederick The Canon of Scripture. De Hamel, Christopher Medieval Craftsmen: Scribes and Illuminations. Buffalo: University of Toronto. Henshaw, T. Riches, John Wright, N.
Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. New York: Avenel Books, The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press, Bible, Authorized Version. Cambridge, Eng. About the body of Moses - The nature of this controversy is wholly unknown, and conjecture is useless. It is not said, however, that there was a strife which should get the body, or a contention about burying it, or any physical contention about it whatever. If it would be right to bring a railing accusation against any one, it would be against the devil.
But, as before observed, there is no reason to suppose that the apostle referred to that. The fact, however, that the angel is said to have used the language on that occasion may be allowed to give confirmation to what is said here, since it shows that it is the language which angelic beings naturally employ. Bibliography Barnes, Albert. But Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing judgment, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.
Barclay's summary of the meaning of this whole verse is excellent: "If the greatest of good angels refused to speak evil of the greatest of evil angels, even in circumstances like that, then surely no human being may speak evil of any angel. It is absolutely unnecessary to suppose that Jude was here quoting from Philo, or the apocryphal book of Enoch, or Josephus, or "The Assumption of Moses," nor any one of half dozen alleged "sources.
It is helpful to remember that the writer of this epistle had been reared in the same family with Jesus Christ our Lord, having had more than a quarter of a century of the most intimate association with the Lord, and that such a statement as is found in this verse undoubtedly reflects the Saviour's own supernatural wisdom. It should not disturb anyone that the kernel of truth mentioned here was endlessly vulgarized and extended in an apocryphal book.
See under Jude Michael the archangel If Jude had been thinking of the book of Enoch here, he would certainly have written, "Michael, one of the archangels," for that book names seven: "Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saragaej, Gabriel, and Remiel. Jude's usage of the term "archangel" is fully in keeping with this view, being certainly opposed to the apocryphal notions of a whole order of archangels. All of the diligence of scholars to find the source of Jude's letter in the shameful book of Enoch not even in the Apocryphal section of the Catholic Bible border very closely upon a denial of his inspiration.
What is indicated in Jude's words here is that there was conflict between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses; we may surmise and it is only that that perhaps Satan wanted to use the body for purposes like the worship of relics in succeeding ages. At any rate, the lesson is, THE archangel did not bring a railing accusation against the devil himself, saying, "The Lord rebuke thee" Zechariah How strange it is that mortal, weak, ignorant, vile and sinful men would rail against heavenly beings, a thing which the archangel would not do, even though apparently having the right to have done so.
Barnett, op. VI London: Carlton and Porter, , p. All other rights reserved. Bibliography Coffman, James Burton. Yet Michael the archangel , By whom is meant, not a created angel, but an eternal one, the Lord Jesus Christ; as appears from his name Michael, which signifies, "who is as God": and who is as God, or like unto him, but the Son of God, who is equal with God? Abot R. Nathan, c. Petirath Mosis, fol. Chagiga, c. Beracot, fol. De Corpore Mosis, sub Praesidio Trigland.
Now the law of Moses was restored in the time of Joshua the high priest, by Ezra and Nehemiah. Joshua breaks some of these laws, and is charged by Satan as guilty, who contended and insisted upon it that he should suffer for it; so that this dispute or contention might be said to be about the body of Moses, that is, the body of Moses's law, which Joshua had broken; in which dispute Michael, or the angel of the Lord, even the Lord Jesus Christ himself,.
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And now the argument is from the greater to the lesser, that if Christ, the Prince of angels, did not choose to give a railing word to the devil, who is so much inferior to him, and when there was so much reason and occasion for it; then how great is the insolence of these men, that speak evil of civil and ecclesiastical rulers, without any just cause at all? Bibliography Gill, John. Text Courtesy of BibleSupport. Used by Permission. Bibliography Beza, Theodore. The name means, Who is like God? In Revelation the conflict between Michael and Satan is again alluded to. Thus in each dispensation a sample and pledge of the future resurrection was given: Enoch in the patriarchal dispensation, Moses in the Levitical, Elijah in the prophetical.
Josephus [ Antiquities, 4. Jude, as inspired, could distinguish how much of the tradition was true, how much false. We have no such means of distinguishing, and therefore can be sure of no tradition, save that which is in the written word. Peter said, Angels do not, in order to avenge themselves, rail at dignities, though ungodly, when they have to contend with them: Jude says that the archangel Michael himself did not rail even at the time when he fought with the devil, the prince of evil spirits - not from fear of him, but from reverence of God, whose delegated power in this world Satan once had, and even in some degree still has.
Copyright Statement These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship. This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed. Bibliography Jamieson, Robert, D. This isolated and mysterious historic allusion to the terrible hand-to- hand battle of the Archangel Michael and the devil over the body of Moses admits of but one solution, i. If Satan had not conquered our race in Eden, none of our bodies would undergo disintegration.
The presence of Moses with his transfigured body on the mount with Jesus and Elijah confirms the fact that the devil did not keep his body in the grave. Hence we must conclude that Moses having died on Pisgah was raised and transfigured when Michael came to take him up to heaven, Satan fighting over him with desperation, or we must conclude that he was translated from Pisgah.
In either case Satan lost the body when it was transfigured. God alone is the judge of all men and devils, while, like Michael, we are to be valiant for truth, fighting the devil and sin under the black flag, yet we must remember that the judicial prerogative belongs to God alone. Prejudice is from the Latin pre , beforehand, judicium , judgment. Hence prejudice means a judgment given before the testimony is heard. That is the trouble with holiness this day, and always has been. God in the judgment day will give the devil, all demons and men, a fair trial.
The Holy Ghost is the only Arbiter of religion and the Church. Bibliography Godbey, William. Michael is mentioned also in Daniel , Daniel ; Daniel ; Revelation All rights reserved. Bibliography Robertson, A. Broadman Press , Renewal Michael the archangel Here we strike a peculiarity of this epistle which caused its authority to be impugned in very early times, viz. The passages are Judges , Judges , Judges Others refer it to Zechariah ; but there is nothing there about Moses' body, or Michael, or a dispute about the body.
Others, again, to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy , where Michael is said to have been made guardian of Moses' grave. Doubtless Jude was referring to some accepted story or tradition, probably based on Deuteronomy For a similar reference to tradition compare 2 Timothy ; Acts Michael Angels are described in scripture as forming a society with different orders and dignities. This conception is developed in the books written during and after the exile, especially Daniel and Zechariah. Michael Who is like God? He is adored as a saint in the Romish Church. For legends, see Mrs. Michael remembered the high estate from which he fell, and left his sentence to God.
Copyright Statement The text of this work is public domain. Bibliography Vincent, Marvin R. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee. Yet Michael — It does not appear whether St. Jude learned this by any revelation or from ancient tradition. It suffices, that these things were not only true, but acknowledged as such by them to whom he wrote.
The archangel — This word occurs but once more in the sacred writings, 1 Thessalonians So that whether there be one archangel only, or more, it is not possible for us to determine. Concerning the body of Moses — Possibly the devil would have discovered the place where it was buried, which God for wise reasons had concealed. Durst not bring even against him a railing accusation — Though so far beneath him in every respect. But simply said, so great was his modesty!
The Lord rebuke thee - I leave thee to the Judge of all. Copyright Statement These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. Bibliography Wesley, John. As there are no accounts in the books of the Old Testament to which the allusions in this verse can be supposed to relate, it is thought by many that the writer refers in them to traditional accounts which came down to his times; or else to writings which then existed, but have since been lost.
In respect to the body of Moses, see Deuteronomy Bibliography Abbott, John S. Yet Michael the archangel. Peter gives this argument shorter, and states generally, that angels, far more excellent than men, dare not bring forward a railing judgment. But as this history is thought to have been taken from an apocryphal book, it has hence happened that less weight has been attached to this Epistle.
But since the Jews at that time had many things from the traditions of the fathers, I see nothing unreasonable in saying that Jude referred to what had already been handed down for many ages. I know indeed that many puerilities had obtained the name of tradition, as at this day the Papists relate as traditions many of the silly dotages of the monks; but this is no reason why they should not have had some historical facts not committed to writing. It is beyond controversy that Moses was buried by the Lord, that is, that his grave was concealed according to the known purpose of God. And the reason for concealing his grave is evident to all, that is, that the Jews might not bring forth his body to promote superstition.
What wonder then is it, when the body of the prophet was hidden by God, Satan should attempt to make it known; and that angels, who are ever ready to serve God, should on the other hand resist him? Therefore this Epistle ought not to be suspected on account of this testimony, though it is not found in Scripture. That Michael is introduced alone as disputing against Satan is not new. We know that myriads of angels are ever ready to render service to God; but he chooses this or that to do his business as he pleases.
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What Jude relates as having been said by Michael, is found also in the book of Zechariah,. And it is a comparison, as they say, between the greater and the less. Michael dared not to speak more severely against Satan though a reprobate and condemned than to deliver him to God to be restrained; but those men hesitated not to load with extreme reproaches the powers which God had adorned with peculiar honors.
Bibliography Calvin, John. About the body of Moses ] As desirous thereby to set up himself in the hearts of the living. If Satan can get that, he is safe. Bibliography Trapp, John. John Trapp Complete Commentary. Contention in the world of spirits. In such passages as these the curtain is for a moment lifted up, and we behold war—"war in heaven. The area of the conflict is far-extended. The din of distant battle-fields reaches the spiritual ear.
Shadowy forms are seen in deadly fight beyond any regions with which our present thoughts are familiar. The victory, indeed, is not doubtful; but the fight is very real, and it is a fight in which we ourselves are closely concerned. Contention—this is a condition of our present state upon earth. We cannot be on Christ's side without contending. We are called, indeed, to peace, but it is equally true that we are called to war. One thing in this passage comes out clear to our apprehension: that the disposal of the body of Moses is viewed in the spiritual world as a matter of some considerable moment.
The angels take an interest in the burial of the great lawgiver. The tomb of Moses, if it had been known, would probably have had a significance in subsequent history very different from the burying-place of Machpelah or the sepulchres of the kings of Judah. There would, to say the least, have been a great risk of idolatrous veneration connected with the top of Mount Pisgah. That place might have become the Mecca of the Jewish world; for in the human mind there is a natural love of pilgrimages and of relics. Michael durst not bring against the devil a railing accusation. What is the meaning of this?
It could not have been fear in the sense of cowardice; we cannot suppose that fear of that kind can have exerted influence over an archangel. No; it was the fear of taking on himself what properly belonged to God; it was the fear of doing that which was indecorous; it was the resolve that he would not lose his self-command. References: Jude 9. Bibliography Nicoll, William R. Jude Michael the archangel, — St.
Peter, 2 Ephesians in reproof of the presumptuous and self-willed, who speak evil of dignities, says, that angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord; but here St. Jude has given us the history to which this belongs. See on Jude What the ground of the controversy between the devil and Michael was, may, in the opinion of Archbishop Tillotson and others, be explained by Deuteronomy where it is said that God took particular care concerning the burying of Moses in a certain valley; and it is added, But no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.
Had the devil been able to discover to the Jews the place where Moses was interred, they would afterwards most probably have paid an idolatrous honour to his remains; and it would have gratified his malice to have made him an occasion of idolatry after his death, who had been so great an enemy to it during his life. To prevent this, Michael buried his body secretly; and this was the thing about which he contended with the devil.
Some have supposed that the contention was not about the body of Moses after his death, but when it was exposed upon the water. Instead of durst not bring against him, the Greek might be rendered, did not allow himself to bring against him. There is no reason to think that Michael was afraid of the devil, when he himself was so much superior in power and dignity.
As he would not offend God, in doing a thing so much beneath the dignity and perfection of his nature; so he could not but think that the devil would be too hard for him at railing; a thing, to which as the angels have no disposition, so I believe they have no talent, no faculty at it; the cool consideration whereof should make all men, especially those who call themselves divines, and more particularly in controversies about religion, ashamed and afraid of this manner of disputing.
Bibliography Coke, Thomas. Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. Our apostle in the preceding verse having charged seducers with contemptuous speaking against governors and government, in this verse he aggravates the impudence and impiety of it, by the carriage of Michael the archangel towards the devil. The argument is taken from the greater to the less, and lies thus: if Michael, an archangel, so excellent in nature, so high in office, contending with Satan, an impure spirit, yet used great modesty, without the least indecency of expression towards him; who and what are those that despise dominions, and dare speak evil of dignities?
Hence observe, That it is our duty to learn the angelic lesson; namely, not to give railing or reviling language to the worst adversary in the best cause, because it proceeds from pride or passion, and because so contrary to the temper and design of Christianity; much more is it our duty to watch against the sins of the tongue, with respect to our governors and superiors, remembering it is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of the rulers of thy people.
Bibliography Burkitt, William. No such tradition is found in any apocryphal or rabbinical book now extant. In the targum of Jonathan in Deuteronomy , it is stated that the grave of Moses was given into the special custody of Michael.
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See also several Rabbinical legends having more or less reference to the point in Wetstein. All such explanations are of course out of the question: and the literal matter of fact alone to be held fast. This has led some, e. Bed e , to imagine, that this was the occasion referred to, when Joshua and Satan stood as adversaries concerning the deliverance of Israel from captivity. His conclusion, in which I entirely agree, is that St. Jude took the incident from primitive tradition, which tradition slightly modified, is also given by the prophet Zechariah.
That, being thus related as matter of fact, it is matter of fact, is a conclusion which will or will not be made, according as we are or are not persuaded of the authenticity of our Epistle as a part of canonical Scripture: and according as we esteem that canonical Scripture itself. Bibliography Alford, Henry. Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. Jude places in a strong light the wickedness of this blasphemy comp. Daniel ; Daniel ; in the N. In the Book of Enoch, chap. According to Jonathan on Deuteronomy , the grave of Moses was given to the special custody of Michael.
Philippi, a direct instruction of the disciples by Christ, occasioned by the appearance of Moses on the mount of transfiguration. Michael restrained himself from such an invective against the devil, because he feared to injure his original dignity; instead of pronouncing a judgment himself, he left this to God. Matthew ; Matthew , etc. According to Zechariah , the angel of the Lord spoke the same words to the devil, who in the vision of Zechariah stood at his right hand as an adversary of the high priest Joshua LXX. Bibliography Meyer, Heinrich. Jude , note. In a matter full of mystery, we ought not to alter that part of the language which is plain, according to our own convenience.
The devil, who had the power of death, and therefore perhaps claimed the right of hindering the resurrection of Moses, made some attempt, whatever it was, against the body of Moses. The greater was the victory at length given to Michael: Revelation It is not permitted man ignominiously to rail at a race opposed to him ; that is, evil spirits. To His judgment the angel assents beforehand [in advance]. Bibliography Bengel, Johann Albrecht. Michael the archangel: either this is understood of Christ the Prince of angels, who is often in Scripture called an Angel, or of a created angel; and that either:.
One of the archangels: Daniel , Michael is called one of the chief princes, which though the word archangel be not found in the plural number in Scripture, may well imply a plurality of them; for what is one of the chief princes among the angels, but an archangel? A principal angel, or one that is chief among others.
When contending with the devil; it may be meant either of Christ contending with the devil, as Matthew , in his temptation, and Zechariah ,2 , and Revelation ; or rather, of Michael, a created angel. If Michael the archangel be meant of Christ, then the body of Moses may be taken figuratively, for that body whereof the Mosaical ceremonies were shadows, Colossians , i.
Deuteronomy , it is said God buried him, which might be by the ministry of Michael the archangel , and that no man knoweth of his sepulchre. The devil opposeth the angel, desiring to have the place of his burial known, that in after-times it might be a snare to that people, and a means to bring them to idolatry. And this seems very probable, if we consider what work the devil hath made in the world with the bodies of saints and martyrs, and how much idolatry he hath brought in thereby.
This passage Jude, most probably, had as was observed in the argument from some known tradition among the Jews, the truth of which we are now sure of, because certified here concerning it. Durst not bring against him; or, could not endure, as the Greek word is often taken among profane writers , or find in his heart, not from fear of punishment, but by reason of the holiness of his own nature, and to give an example to us. And this sense agrees to the scope of the place, whether we understand it of Christ, or of a created angel, Hebrews 1 Peter A railing accusation: see 2 Peter But said, The Lord rebuke thee; i.
Bibliography Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jude ". The archangel ; the word archangel means a chief angel, or ruler of angels. Compare 2 Timothy We know nothing more of the event here referred to than what Jude has given us. Durst not ; not because he feared the devil, but because he feared God, and feared to commit sin by using reproachful language.
Rebuke thee ; restrain thy rage, control, and punish thee. Holy beings will not use reproachful epithets even towards the devil, much less towards men, especially magistrates, and those whom God requires us to honor. Those who delight in such language show themselves to be servants of the evil one. Bibliography Edwards, Justin. American Tract Society.
Field ad loc. Bibliography "Commentary on Jude ". But they are being very foolish, for if they would but remember it, even Michael the Archangel did not dare to rail at the Devil. They would do well therefore to take notice. Michael is one of only two angels who are named in Scripture. The other is Gabriel Daniel ; Luke ; Luke Michael is cited in Daniel as being the angel whose responsibility it was to protect the interests of Israel Daniel ; Daniel ; Daniel We must not therefore read into it more than is warranted.
There are no grounds for seeing him as being Jesus.
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He is a ministering spirit Hebrews , not the Messiah. The work in question is lost but has been built up from excerpts taken from early Christian writers who knew the Book. The important passage read as follows:. Thus no one saw the burial of Moses. It is thus a Scriptural phrase indicating how Satan is to be dealt with.
Indeed we might have expected it. That Satan would want to interfere at such an important time is probable. He may well have foreseen that God had some future purpose for Moses, as found for example at the Transfiguration Mark So there is nothing intrinsically unlikely in the basic idea that he sought to interfere in the arrangements. The detail need not be pressed. Bibliography Pett, Peter. Michael —Whence Jude quotes this instance is not clearly known.
Gardiner has a plausible conjecture, which is in some degree sustained by this reference to the transfiguration. In that scene Moses appears in his resurrection body, and according to Deuteronomy , the place of his tomb was never known. Moses, then, like the transfigured Elijah, was really not buried, but corporeally translated; and the real contest which took place between Michael and Satan was whether Moses was worthy, instead of a burial, of a translation.
It may then have been a judicial contest, as in a case of canonization; in which Satan was the prosecutor, and Michael the advocate, of Moses; and the issue was, whether Moses should have a grave or an ascension. The transfiguration, where Moses appears with glorified body, shows that Michael was victorious.
Michael is a name which does not appear in Scripture until after the captivity, namely, in Daniel , where he stands as the champion and guardian-angel of Israel See note, Matthew Durst not —Had not the daring. As in Job, Satan appears in his official state as prosecutor, and a forensic courtesy before that tribunal of God himself is due even to that bad dignity, as well as to the divine Judge. It was not Satan who was on trial, but Moses; and, therefore, Michael need not make irrelevant allusion to the opposing counsels unfortunate antecedents.
Rebuke thee —As he did Satan in the previous case of Job, acquitting the accused and non-suiting the accuser. Nor does the historical character of the document make important difference, for the modern pulpit could as properly elucidate a moral principle from Milton as from Macaulay. But are we to treat Satan with courtesy? And courtesy is due to the worst who is in the performance of a dignified office. And this, nevertheless, does not silence the voice of moral rebuke.
When the dignitary puts off his dignity and becomes a buffoon, a criminal, a culprit, there is a suitable treatment for him as a buffoon, a criminal, a culprit. Dignified courts know how to treat a criminal with due respect and self-respect. When moral severity arraigns the guilty, in the true spirit either of reforming or of condemning for the warning of others, or for the public good, the plainest words of human language may be sometimes justifiably used.
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And when Jesus arraigned Satan, John , truth and righteousness took precedence of courtesy. Preachers of the present day need not be afraid of this passage. It is a noble text in behalf of courtesy and moral rectitude in our forensic and judicial chambers, in our legislative and congressional halls, in our editorial columns. Bibliography Whedon, Daniel. The presumption of the false teachers stands out boldly in comparison with Michael"s submission and reverence in dealing with another powerful angel, Satan. Michael would not treat the devil flippantly or reply to him rudely.
How much more then should the false teachers submit to and respect God?